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Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier

by

Robert M. Young

 

[ Contents | Preface | Introduction | Chapter: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | Bibliography ]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

In the brain, which we term the seat of reason, there is not anything of moment more than I can discover in the crany of a beast: and this is no inconsiderable argument of the inorganity of the soul, at least in the sense we generally so receive it. Thus we are men, and we know not how.

Sir Thomas Browne, c. 1635.

It remains sadly true that most of our present understanding would remain as valid and useful if, for all we knew, the cranium were stuffed with cotton wadding.

Gerard, 1949.

It would be tedious and pointless to list all the works which have been examined or consulted in the course of this study, even though a comprehensive bibliography on nineteenth-century psychology and neurology is an important desideratum today. The bibliography of Benjamin Rand (Baldwin, 1901, III) is the most convenient single source which has appeared, while Current Work in the History of Medicine, Psychological Abstracts, and the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences provide valuable guides to current literature. I have listed only those works which are cited in the text or notes, or which have contributed directly to the writing of this book. On the other hand, I have refrained from mentioning numerous works which are either useless or actively misleading. It seems to me that the first duty of a hospital is not to spread disease.

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INDEX

There is an exceedingly subtle and insidious danger in positivism. If you cannot avoid metaphysics, what kind of metaphysics are you likely to cherish when you sturdily suppose yourself to be free from the adomination? Of course it goes without saying that in this case your metaphysics will be held uncritically because it is unconscious; moreover, it will be passed on to others far more readily than your other notions inasmuch as it will be propagated by insinuation rather than by direct argument

E. A Burtt, 1932, p. 225.

Now it may well be that science, despite its rejection of final causes, reveals the presence and functioning of values in the fundamental categories it selects and the way it applies them. If so, than an adequate scientific metaphysic will not be able to manage without teleology in some form and it becomes a question of first-rate importance what that form is to be

Ibid., p. 308

 

Ablation, 4, 26, 32, 34, 35, 47, 48, 48n, 50-2, 58-70, 91, 226, 233, 235, 240.

Academie de Médicine, 139

ACKERKNECKT, E., vii, xi, 34n

activity spontaneous, 98, 113, 115, 120, 125-7, 131, 183.

ALLPORT, G., 132n-133n

ANDRAL, G., 147, 227

anecdotal method, 4, 37-9, 41, 45, 78, 231

aphasia, 6, 108, 110, ch. 4, 196n, 206n, 207, 221, 245

aphemia, 142, 142n, 145, 206n

ARISTOTLE, 14, 93, 129

articulate language, faculty of, see aphasia, 13, 43, 45, 85, 104, 110, ch. 4, 205-7, 221, 240, 242-3, 245, 251

artificial identity of interests, 154, 158, 170

association of ideas, associationism, ix-x, 4-5, 7, 31, 53-4, 81, 86, 90, 91, 94-100 ch. 3, ch. 5, 200, 202, 204, 206, 210, 212n, 217, 222, 224, 241

associative memory, 192

astrology, 46, 88n, 92

AUBURTIN, E., 140-1, 145-6

 

BACON, Sir F., Baconion method, 38-9, 45, 45n-46n, 83, 123

BAER, K. E. von, 168, 168n

BAIN, A., x, 6-7, 46n, 94, 96, 96n, 98-100, ch. 3, 150-1, 164-5, 177, 178n, 180, 182-5, 190, 192-5, 197, 200, 206-7, 209, 212n, 220, 224, 240, 243, 246-7, 249, 251

BASTIAN, H. C., 219

BATEMAN, F., 23

BEEVOR, C. E., 235

behaviour, 6, 98, 120

behaviourism, x, 7, 73-4, 132, 186, 192-3

BELL, Sir C., see Bell-Magendie law, 47, 58, 77, 79, 92

BELL-MAGENDIE law, 5, 46, 67, 77-80, 77n-78n, 92-4, 111-12, 118, 200-2, 204, 211, 213, 223, 241, 246

BENNETT, H., 244

BENTHAM, J., 153, 155-6

BERNARD, C., 70, 78

BETZ, W., 219

BICHAT, X., 11, 75-6

bigeminal tubercles, 67-8

BORING, E. G., 116n, 120

BOUILLAUD, J. B., 135, 137-42, 137n, 145-8, 223, 227-8

BOWMAN, W., see Todd

Brain, 198, 238n

brain and behaviour research, x, 22-3, 32-3, 62, 247, 252

BRAY, C., 203n-204n

Bridgewater Treatises, 158n, 176

British Association, 206n, 212, 219, 239

British Phrenological Society, Inc., xi, 152n

BROADBENT, W., 219

BROCA, P. P., x, 6-7, 23, 42n, 108, 121, ch. 4, 206, 206n, 223, 227-8, 240, 243

BROUSSAIS, F. J. V., 43

BROWN, T., see Scottish Faculty Psychology, 94, 97, 100, 102-3, 114, 122

BROWNE, Sir T., 253

 

274

BUFFON, G. L. L., 58, 63

BURTT, E. A., 1, 273

BUTLER, J., 130

 

CABANIS, P. J. C., see Ideology, 15, 20, 83, 84, 97

CARPENTER, W. B., 43n, 109, 112, 121, 123, 164, 168, 168n, 210-20

Cartesian mind-body dualism, viii, x, 1-3, 7-8, 19, 25, 29, 55, 71-2, 81-2, 90, 179, 194-5, 196n, 205-8, 216, 219, 232-3

caudate nucleus, 217

centrencephalic integrating system, 212n

cerebellum, 11, 47-51, 58, 60, 64, 67, 84, 87, 106, 111, 212n

cerebral dominance, 142

____ nomenclature, 141-2, 230

____ peduncles, 68, 87

chain of being, 4, 17, 34, 174, 203

CHALMERS, T., 158n

CHAMBERS, R., 10, 122, 162

character, 6, ch. 1, 121-33, 247

CHARCOT, J. M., 198n, 240

CHAUSSIER, 77

CLARKE, A. H., 230

clinico-pathological correlation, 35, 37, 135, 138, 140, 142, 145, 148, 222, 227, 236, 240

COLERIDGE, S. T., 159

Collège de France, 57

COMBE, G., 44, 105-6, 108, 122-4, 126, 152, 154, 157, 158n, 170

Committee of the National Institute, 25, 56-7, 80-3

comparative anatomy, 26, 62-3, 89, 168n, 230, 235

____ psychology, 3, 16-19, 27, 34-6, 39, 53, 98, 125, 131, 173-4, 177, 185, 190-2, 204, 212n.

COMTE, A., 99n, 123, 196n, 211

concomitance, Jackson’s doctrine of, see psychophysical parallelism

CONDILLAC, E. B. de, 13, 15, 72, 83-4, 86, 90, 94, 114, 120, 132, 177-18, 185, 195, 195n

conditioned reflex, 193

continuity principle of, 7-8, 54, 169, 172, 179, 199, 201, 204, 212, 220, 235

contractility, 65-6

convulsion, see epilepsy, 67-8, 214, 227, 229, 238, 244

coordination, see cerebellum, 67, 106

corpus callosum, 67, 91

____ striatum, 67, 87, 90, 111-13, 144, 207, 210-11, 213-16, 218-21, 220n, 227, 241n

correlative method, 4, 6, 54, 58, 78, 126, 140, 148, 231

CORVISART, J. N., 77

cranial nerves, 23, 85

craniology, see cranioscopy

cranioscopy, 3, ch. 1, 54, 88, 88n, 104, 136, 141, 148, 153, 156-7, 239

creation, special, 167, 175-6, 179

CRICHTON-BROWNE, Sir J., 214, 238n

CROMBIE, A. C., 101, 134

CUDWORTH, R., 157

CUVIER, G., (J.L.N.F.), 47, 56-9, 63, 66, 81, 168n, 174

 

DARWIN, C., 17, 44-5, 53, 55, 89, 110, 120, 128, 132, 133n, 168n, 169n, 176-7, 188-92, 194, 196, 198, 247

DARWIN, E., 96n, 114, 116-18

DAX, M., 142n, 147

DESCARTES, R., see Cartesian mind-body dualism, 5, 15, 22, 43, 71-3, 95, 97, 178

developmental psychology, 184-5, 190-1

DEWEY, J., 193, 234, 251

dissolution, 199

DOMOUTIER, J., 43

dreams, 69

DU BOIS-REYMOND, E., 89

 

ECKHARD, C., 227

Edinburgh Review, 99

Edwin Smith Papyrus, 20

electrical excitability, 6, 68, 103, 109, 150, 210, 214-15, 218-19, 222-3, ch. 7, ch. 8

ELIOT, G., 162, 203n

ELLIOTSON, J., 152, 152n

embryology, see von Baer, 140, 161

emotions, 98, 105, 110-11, 126-8, 181-5, 190, 199-201

empiricism, 54, 95, 99-100, 175, 180, 182-3

epilepsy, see convulsion, 145, 198n, 210, 219, 221-2, 236, 238

epistemology, 2, 12, 15-16, 21, 94-6, 98, 113, 120, 169, 173-4, 181, 190-2

equipotentiality, cerebral, 46, 69, 70, 72-3, 90, 139, 146-9, 223, 226, 231-3, 240

ERASISTRATUS, 93

ethology (animal behaviour), x, 29, 186, 247, 252

____(J. S. Mill’s science of character), 123, 132, 133n, 164

evolution, ix, 3-8, 17, 35, 44-5, 54-5, 83, 94, 108, 110, 128, ch. 5, 199-201, 204-5, 220, 235-6, 249-51

excitability, cerebral, see electrical excitability, 90, 121, ch. 7, ch. 8

experimental method, ix, 4-5, 37-54, 58-88, 140, 148, 192, 231, 238

extrapyramidal system, see corpus striatum, 217

 

275

Faculties, speculative, viii, 2-3, 10-11, 18-19, 26, 31, 36, 51, 53-4, 62-3, 69, 71, 84-5, 87, 92, 104, 125, 128-30, 166, 172, 180-1, 186, 207-8, 213-14, 249

faculty psychology, 6, ch. 1, 71-3, 86, 93, 95, 113, 125, 127-31, 142-3, 152-6, 160-7, 174, 180, 182, 186, 203, 209, 246, 250

factor analysis, x

falsificationist methodology, 40-1

FARADAY, M., 116n

fatalism, 73, 96

FERRIER, Sir D., ix-x, 7-8, 23, 43-4, 46, 52-4, 94-7, 101, 108-10, 134, 142-3, 146-9, 151, 194, 196, 198, 205, 209-10, 214, 219, 224, 228n, 232-3, ch. 8, 249

FLOURENS, M-J-P., 5-6, 20, 22, 24n-25n, 27, 33, 45-9, 51, 55-75, 77n, 78-80, 88-91, 103, 112, 114, 116, 118, 121, 139-40, 144, 146, 149, 200, 206, 210, 213, 215, 216, 223, 225-6, 228-9, 231-3, 235, 242, 245

forms of thought, 176, 180

FOSTER, Sir M., xi, 29, 64, 219, 237

FRANÇOIS-FRANCK, C. E. 234

FRANZ, S. I., 46, 62

Fraser’s Magazine, 123

French Academy of Sciences, 56-7, 63, 70, 77-8

FREUD, S., 133n, 146n, 196n, 198n, 208n

FRITSCH, G., see Hitzig, ch. 7, esp. 225

frontal air sinuses, 42

____ lobes, 32, 43, ch. 4, 242

functional psychology, 13, 17, 20-1, 84, 159, 160, 167, 171-2, 184, 191, 191n, 194-5, 250-1

functionalism, see functional psychology

 

GALEN, 10, 22, 93, 219

GALL, F. J., ix-xi. 3-5, ch. 1, 54-61, 63, 70-4, 76-7, 79-83, 85, 87, 88, 88n, 90-2, 91n, 106, 122-5, 128, 134, 136-41, 146, 148, 151, 152n, 154, 157, 164, 170, 172-6, 179, 182, 186, 190, 196n, 202-3, 209, 212n, 228, 235, 238n, 239, 242-3, 245-50, 252

GALILEI, G., 76

GALTON, Sir F., 41, 128

GAY, J., 5, 95-6, 156, 176-7

genetic method, 179, 185, 209

geology, see Lyell, 8

GERARD, R. W., 253

GLISSON, Sir F., 65

globus pallidus, 217

GODLEE, R., 244

GOLTZ, F. L., 46, 236, 240, 245

GOMBRICH, E. H., 101

graphology, 10

GRATIOLET, L. E. T., 139

greatest happiness principle, see Utilitarianism, 153, 155, 157-8

grey matter, 23, 91, 111, 221, 227

GROTE, G., 99n

GRUBER, H., 191n

GUTHRIE, E. R., 193

 

Habit, see association of ideas, 117-18, 176, 178, 186, 188

Haller, A. von, 51, 58-9, 64-5, 89, 200, 202, 210, 227

HAMILTON, Sir W., 98

HARTLEY, D., 5, 94-7, 97n, 100, 102-3, 114, 116n, 121, 154, 156, 164, 176, 212n

HARVEY, W., 80, 93

HEAD, Sir H., xi, ch. 4

HEBB, D. O., 27n

HELMHOLTZ, H. L. F., 89, 225n

HENLE, J., 89

HERBART, J. F., 22

Heredity, see inheritance

HEROPHILUS, 10, 93

hippocampus, 32

HIPPOCRATES, 20, 93, 135

HITZIG, E., x, 6-7, 23, 46, 54, 109, 121, 134, 140, 142, 144, 146, 148-9, 204n, 205, 210, 214n, 219-20, 223, ch. 7, 234-5, 237-8, 240, 243, 245

HOBBES, T., 94

HOLLANDER, B., 44, 238n

homogeneity to heterogeneity, 168, 168n, 171-2

HORSLEY, Sir V., 230n, 235

HUGO, V.,59

HUME, D., 45, 94, 97, 100, 102, 121

HUNT, J., 42n

HUTCHESON, F., 156-7, 176

HUTCHINSON, Sir J., 197, 198n-199n

HUXLEY, T. H., 45, 189, 211, 212n, 237

hydrocephalus, 23

hyperaemia, 215

 

Idéologues, see ideology, Cabanis, Tracy

ideology, 5, 15, 83, 84, 86, 90, 114

individual differences, 3, 19, 53, 124, 132, 155, 203

inheritance, 172, 175-8, 180, 183, 186-90, 195, 200

innate ideas, 15-16, 95-6, 173-4, 176, 178, 193n

innateness, see inheritance, 2-3, 12, 15, 19, 72, 96, 119, 126, 173, 178, 186

instinct, 15, 39, 51, 82, 88, 96, 102, 156, 158, 172, 174-9, 181-2, 188, 190-1, 200

integration, nervous, 236

internal capsule, 217-18

 

 

276

International Medical Congress, Seventh, 240

introspective method, 83, 94, 108-9, 125, 128, 131, 164, 185

irritability, 50, 53, 55, 63-6, 74, 91, 179, 214

 

JACKSON, J. H., x, 6-8, 23, 94, 96, 101, 108, 110, 121, 134, 143-4, 146n, 149-51, 191, 194, 196, ch. 6, 228n, 232-3, 236-7, 238n, 240-1, 243, 245

JAMES, W., see functional psychology, 150, 191, 194-5, 251

Jardin des Plantes, 57

JEFFERSON, Sir G., xi, 210-11

JONES, T. R., 167

Journal de Physiologie Expérimentale (et Pathologie), 77-8

 

KANT, E., 162

KIDD, J., 158n

KÖLLIKER, R. A., 89, 218

KOYRÉ, A., 54

 

LAMARCK, J. B. P. A., see ‘Lamarckianism’

‘Lamarckianism’, 162-3, 167, 172, 186-90

LANCEROTTE, 51

LASHLEY, K. S., 46, 62, 251

LAVATER, J. C., see physiognomy, 14, 74

law of effect. see activity, motion, 193

LAWRENCE, W., 9

LAYCOCK, T., 204, 204n

learning theory, 192

LEGALLOIS, C. J. J. C., 210

LEIBNIZ, G. W., 172

lenticular nucleus, 217

LEWES, G. H., 4, 8, 21n, 43, 46n, 94, 162-3, 165, 173, 203n, 250

LISTER, J., 244

LIVINGSTON, R. B., 249

LOCKE, J., 5, 14-17, 21-2, 54, 72, 83, 94-6, 100, 102, 114, 120, 162, 173, 179-80, 224

LOEB, J., 192

logic, see J. S. Mill, 98

London Phrenological Society, 152n

LONGET, F. A., 80, 210, 225

LORRY, A. C., 51, 59, 210

LOVEJOY, A. O., vii, xi, 17

LUCIANI, L., 235

LUYS, J.B., 211

LYELL, Sir C., 163, 167, 172

 

McDOUGALL, W., 133n

MACEWEN, Sir W., 244

MACKENZIE, W. L., 109

MAGENDIE, F., x, 5, 46, 58, 74-90, 92, 111, 114, 121, 206-7, 210, 225

MAGOUN, H. W., 195-6

MAITLAND, F. W., 249

MARIE, P., 145, 245

materialism, 56, 73, 90, 96-7, 122

MATTEUCCI, C., 225

Mechanics’ Mutual Instruction Class, 121

Medico-Chirurgical Review, 212

medulla oblongata, 49, 58, 64, 67-8, 86, 111-12, 116, 210, 213, 219

MERCIER, C., 198n-199n

mesmerism, see phreno-mesmerism, 152n

MEYNERT, T., 80, 146n, 188n, 228

MILL, J., 5, 94, 97-8, 99n, 100, 102, 114-15, 121, 154, 156, 185, 212n

MILL, J. S., 5, 46n, 94, 99, 99n, 100, 102-3, 111, 114-16, 119, 121, 123-4, 128, 132, 132n-133n, 150, 163-5, 177, 182, 211, 212n

MILNE-EDWARDS, H., 168, 168n

Mind, 101, 239

monomania, 36

Montyon Prize in experimental physiology, 57, 77-8

moral sense, 96, 155-8, 176-8, 192

morality, 56

MORGAN, C. L., 192

motion, 6-7, 51, 53-5, 63, 65-9, 74, 80-1, 90, 94, 96-8, 105-6, 109-10, 114-21, 138, 142-4, 150, 182, 199-200, 205-8, 214-18, ch. 7, 238, 240, 242, 247

motor function, see motion, viii, 43-4, 68, 106-7, 143-4, 205-10, ch. 7

MUELLER, J., x, 5-6, 77n-78n, 88-94, 96n, 111-12, 115-21, 174, 200, 206-7, 220, 235

MUNK, H., 46, 235, 245

MURPHY, G., 119, 193

muscle sense, 97-8, 106, 114-15

‘mutilation’, see ablation

 

NAPOLEON, 56, 77, 91n

National Hospital, Queen Square, 197, 244

natural classification of functions, see units of analysis, viii, 185

____ identify of interest, 154, 158-9, 170

____ selection, 187-90

____ theology, 8, 158n, 167, 175-6, 179

Naturalistic method, ix, 4, 37, 45, 58, 70, 73, 87, 128, 140, 184, 252

NEMESIUS, 10

neurology, 6, ch. 4. 150, ch. 6

neurone theory, 230

neurosurgery, 243-5

‘new phrenology’, see ‘scientific phrenology’, 55, 240, 243

NEWTON, Sir F., see Newtonianism

Newtonianism, I, 8, 75, 96

NOBLE, D., 212n

 

277

OLMSTED, J. M. D., xi, 57-8, 74-80

one-to-one correlation, 4, 31, 33, 36-7, 203

operant, see law of effect, 193

optic layers, 67

organic analogy, see functional psychology, 153, 158-62, 160n, 167, 200, 250

OWEN, R., 230

 

PALEY, W., 155-6

palmistry, 10

paralysis, 68, 138, 143, 147, 221, 227, 233, 244

Parkinsonism, 217

passions, see emotions, 11, 96, 176

passivity, see sensationalism, 184, 195

PASTEUR, L., 78

PAVLOV, I. P., 193

perception, 66-9, 69n, 70, 84, 85n, 86-7, 213, 217

peripheral nerves, 58, 64-6, 68, 93, 96, 201

personality, see character

Philosophic Radicalism, see Utilitarianism, 154

Phrenological Journal, 34n, 108n, 124, 152

Phrenological Newsletter, 48

phrenology, see ‘ scientific phrenology’, xi, 3, 6, ch. 1, 54-6, 70, 88, 88n, 104-8, 113, 121-35, 138-41, 146, 150-62, 164, 167, 169-70, 178, 181, 189, 196n, 200-3, 212n, 234, 238n, 239-40, 242-3, 243n, 250-1

phreno-mesmerism, 44, 152

physiognomy, 10, 13-14, 19, 33, 33n, 136

physiological division of labour, 160, 162, 168, 168n, 201-2

PINEL, P., 36, 57, 81, 135n

PLATO, vi, 10, 15-16, 180

pleasure-pain principle, 15, 95, 98, 115, 124, 126-7, 154, 176, 180, 187, 213

pneumatic physiology, see ventricular localization, 10

POPE, A., 130

PORTAL, A., 57, 81

pragmatism, see functional psychology,

James, 194

PROCHASKA, G., 11

progress, 170

psychoanalysis, see Freud, x

psychophysical parallelism, 96, 196n, 208-9, 233, 246

putamen, 217

puzzle-box method, see Thorndike, 192

pyramidal tract, 23, 217-19

 

Quadrigeminal tubercles, 64, 67-8, 87, 111

QUAIN, J., 103

 

Reflex, x, 111, 120, 175, 178-9, 187, 190, 193, 204, 212n, 226, 232, 236

REID, T., see Scottish faculty psychology, 21-2, 100, 102, 122

REIL, J. C., 96n, 116

religion, see natural theology, 16n, 56, 74, 82

REMAK, R., 89

respiration, 58, 63, 67, 78

RIBOT, T., 119, 128, 131, 169

RICHERAND, A. B., 76

ROBERTSON, G. C., 234, 239-40

ROLANDO, L., 27, 51, 59-60, 68

ROLLESTON, G., 237

ROMANES, G. J., 35, 177, 191-2

ROMMEL, P., 135

Royal Society, 147, 212, 236-7, 239, 242

RUMBALL, J. Q., 151

RUTHERFORD, W., 239

 

SABATIER, 81

SAINT-HILAIRE, E. G., 56

SANDERSON, J. B., 234

SAUCEROTTE, N., 59

SCHAFER, E. A., 235

SCHIFF, M., 225

SCHMIDT, J., 135

SCHOPENHAUER, A., 133n

SCHWANN, T., 89

‘Scientific phrenology’, 234, 236, 243

Scottish faculty psychology, see Reid,

Stewart, Brown, 97, 156-7

SEDGEWICK, A., 10

sensation, viii, 2, 51, 53-5, 61-9, 69n, 74, 79-80, 84-6, 102, 110, 112-13, 125-6, 177, 199-200, 213-14, 216-17, 226, 232-3, 235, 240-2, 247

sensationalism, 3, 5, 13, 15, 53, 72, 84, 95-7, 173-5, 177-8, 180, 185-6, 195, 217

senses, see sensation, 7, 27, 68, 97-8, 105, 115, 127-8

sensory-motor paradigm, ix, 4, 53-4, 69-70, 74, 84, 87, 90, 92-3, 111-13, 116, 120-1, 149, 193, 199, 202, 216, ch. 8, 249

____ physiology, viii, x, 5-6, 31, 49n, 53, ch. 2, 74, 101-3, 114, 148, 150, 195, ch. 6, ch. 7, 241-2

____ psychophysiology, 7, 53, 84, 94, 102, 114, 120, 149, 190, 193-6, ch. 6, ch. 7, ch. 8

sexual instinct, 47-8, 51, 104, 156, 183

SHARPEY, W., 103, 116n, 121

SHERRINGTON, C. S., 46, 236, 245

SINGER, C., 150

SKINNER, B. F., see operant, 193

SMITH, R., 204n, 211n

social Darwinism, 154, 196n

Société Anatomique, 141, 145

Société d’Anthropologie, 139-40

Société Phrénologique, 137

specific energies of nervous, 225, 235

spinal cord, 5, 49, 64, 66-8, 81, 83, 87, 96, 199, 201, 204, 201, 204, 210, 215, 218, 225

_____ nerve roots, see Bell-Magendie law, 5, 58, 87, 106, 111, 146, 201-2

spino-thalamic tract, 216

SPENCER, H., x, 6-8, 94, 96, 99n, 101, 108, 110, 119-21, 128, 132, 149, ch. 5, 197-204, 207, 209, 211, 219-20, 223-4, 233, 236, 240, 243, 246-7, 249-51

SPURZHEIM, J. C., 9, 24-5, 43, 46, 56, 80, 106, 122, 124, 151, 154, 157, 170, 238n, 239

stereotaxis, 230n

STEWART, D., see Scottish faculty psychology, 21, 22, 100, 102, 122, 129

stimulation, see electrical excitability, 23, 43-4, 48n, 52, 59, 60, 67, 91, 113, 214, 218, 222, ch. 7, ch. 8

STOUT, G. F., 101

STRATON, J., 122

 

Tabula rasa, see sensationalism, 15, 181, 195

‘Tan’ (LEBORGNE), 140, 144-5

TAYLOR, J., 198n

TEMKIN, O., xi

TENON, J. R., 25, 81

thalamo-cortical tract, 216, 219

thalamus, optic, 87, 91, 111-13, 211, 213, 215-17, 227

THORNDIKE, E. L., 41, 62, 192-3

THORWALD, J., xi, 240n, 243-4

TODD, R. B., 103, 111-13, 121, 207, 210-11, 213, 218

TRACY, A. L. C. D. de, 15, 83, 97

tumour, cerebral, 243-4

 

Unconscious cerebration, 212

units of analysis, viii-ix, 4, 32, 35, 64, 71, 144, 249, 251-2

University College, London, 211

Utilitarianism, 95-6, 98, 153-9, 169

 

VALLOIS, H. V., vii, 34n

ventricular localization, 2, 10, 220n

verbal memory, see aphasia, articulate language

VESALIUS, 10, 93

VIRCHOW, R. L. C., 89

vitalism, 75-6, 89

volition, see will

 

WALLACE, A. R., 44, 152n, 243n

WARD, J., 132n-133n

WARREN, H. C., 119

WATSON, J. B., see behaviourism, 193, 207n

WEBER, E. H., 225

WEISCRANTZ, L., 32

WEISMANN, A., 188, 188n

WERNICKE, K., 146n

West Riding Lunatic Asylum, 214, 215n, 238, 238n, 244

Westminster Review, 165

WHEWELL, W., 163

white matter, 23, 30, 96, 217

WHITEHEAD, A. N., 1

will, 5, 52, 66-7, 69-70, 74, 81-2, 84, 86-7, 98, 104-7, 109-10, 112-13, 115-17, 120, 125-7, 181, 184, 207-8, 210, 213-14, 218-19, 221, 225-6, 232-3, 239, 241-2, 241n

WILLIAMS, H. M., 43, 243n

WILLIS, T., 220n

WOLFF, C., 22

 

ZANGWILL, O. L., xi, 70n, 142n, 246, 252

ZINN, J. G., 51, 59, 227

Zoist, The, 152-3


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