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Darwin's Metaphor:
Nature's Place in Victorian Culture

by

Robert M. Young

 

[ Introduction | Preface | Chapter: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Notes | Bibliography | Index ]

  Index

333

acquired characteristics, inheritance of (see also Lamarck, J-B.; Lysenko-Michurin theory of inheritance), 49-50, 51, 53, 75, 115, 116, 117, 118, 198, 264 n116.1 adaptation, 70

Adler, Sol, 260 n86. 1

Adorno, T., 213

agnosticism, 5, 148, 161

Albert, Prince, 4

Alford, H., 153

Althusser, L., 213, 217, 237, 279-80 n213.1, 283 n237.1

America, 212

analogy, 3, 44, 85, 97

analogy between artificial and natural selection, 44, 72, 73, 74, 79-125

Anderson, Perry, 165, 233-7, 283 n237.1

Anthropological Society of London, 66 anthropology, 75, 158, 165, 185, 214, 243

anthropology, physical, 66

anthropomorphism, 77, 79-125, 261 n97.1

Ardrey, Robert, 188

Argyll, Duke of, 106, 112, 124, 151, 153, 199

Aristotelian Society, 159

associationism, 2, 3, 50, 61, 63, 64, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 133, 240

atheisrn, 7, 12, 107

Austin, J. L., 173

Austria, 213

Aveling, Edward, 20

Avineri, S., 244

Babbage, Charles, 14, 148, 263 n104.2

Bacon, Sir Francis, 12, 13, 235

Bagehot, Walter, 18, 76, 150, 153, 185, 192, 251 n24.2

Bain, Alexander, 61, 64, 69, 132, 158, 159, 270 n158.2

Balfour, A. J., 151

Balibar, E., 213

base-superstructure model, 165, 166, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 214-5, 218, 219, 242, 245

Becker, B. H., 157

Beckwith, Johnathan, xi

Beer, G., 124-5

Benjamin, W, 213

Bentham, Jeremy, 3, 49, 192

Berkeley protests, 230

Berkeley, George, 76

Bernal, J. D., 173, 203, 212, 231, 232, 278 n204.1, 280 n217.1

Bessant, Annie, 20

Best, Geoffrey, 274-5 n186.2

Bible (see also Book of God's Word; Genesis), 3, 7, 10, 11, 13, 64, 130, 141, 147

Biblical criticism, 68, 133

biotechnology, xi, xii, xiii, 246, 247

Blake, R. M., 172

blending inheritance, 113, 114, 115

Boas, M. B., 172

Blackwood's Magazine, 193

Book of God's Word (see also Bible; Genesis), 11, 139

Book of God's Works (see also nature), 11, 12, 127, 139

Boucher de Perthes, 67, 68

Bowler, Peter, 163, 252 n25.2

Bradlaugh, Charles, 20

brain, 4, 9, 10, 48, 61, 62, 147, 246

Brain, 159, 160

Braithwaite, R., 172

Bray, Charles, 133, 193, 196

Bridgewater Treatises, 2, 10, 97, 128, 132, 137, 140, 148, 159, 169, 189, 195

Britain, 61

British Association, 6, 7, 8, 11, 62, 67, 68, 111, 137, 155, 235

British Critic, 138

.

334

British Society for Social Responsibility in Science, xi, 282 n233.2

Brixham Cave, 67

Brooke, John, 162

Brown, A. W., 152

Brown, Thomas, 38, 61, 134, 158

Buchdahl, Gerd, 163, 171, 172, 175

Buckland, William, 6, 11, 13, 67, 132, 135, 140, 149, 169, 198, 275-6 n189.2

Budd, Susan, 131, 176

Burrow, J. W, 17, 49, 135, 185

Burtt, E. A., 163, 173, 243

Butler, Bishop, 10

Butler, Samuel, 264 n 119.1

Butterfield, H., 171, 172, 173

Bynum, W F., 163

Calvinism, 32

Cambridge Apostles, 151

Cambridge History Faculty, 174, 176, 272 n170.1

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 226

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 137

Cambridge, University of, 6, 165, 171-9

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, 212

Cannon, Walter (Faye), 163, 182, 250 n11.1, 257 n68.2

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 15, 32, 149

capitalism, 19, 188, 189, 215, 225, 230

Carpenter, William, 50, 62, 63, 106, 150, 153, 169, 198

Carr, E. H., 177

Cassell's Magazine, 154

catastrophism, 3, 10, 66, 84, 104, 136, 138, 145, 146, 182

Cattell, J. M., 159

cause (seealso vera causa), 76, 264 n113.1

cerebral localization, 61, 62, 64, 126

Chadwick,O ., 250 n11.2, 265 n130.3

Chalmers, Thomas, 24, 32-9, 54, 149,

159, 187, 188, 198

Chambers, Robert, 3, 4, 5, 11, 13, 14, 72, 79, 82, 89, 90, 91, 132, 133, 138, 141, 183, 196, 197, 223. 240, 258 n74.2 Vestiges of Creation, 3, 4, 7, 44, 46, 62, 74, 88, 89, 90, 120, 124, 131, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 162, 169, 183, 184, 194, 195, 200

chance, 112

Chevenix, Richard, 63

Christianity, I, 5, 9, 21

civilization, xii-xiii

class, 188, 193, 239, 246

classification, 58

Clifford, W K., 151

Cockburn, William, 6, 7, 9, 11

Coleman, William, 182

Colenso, Bishop, 185

Collins, Philip, 177

colonialism, 191

Combe, George (see also Gall, F. J.; phrenology; Spurzheim, J. C.), 4, 44, 63, 64, 74, 132, 133, 147, 149, 150, 193, 196, 270 n158.2

common context, xiii, 24, 126-63

communication and control, xiii

comparative anatomy, 63, 66

competition, 19

Comte, A. (see also positivism), 191

Condillac, E. B., 61 71, 75

Condorcet, Marquis de, 2, 17, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 39, 51, 54, 71, 72

conflict between religion and science, 12, 21, 22, 127

consciousness, 113

conservation of energy, 76

conservatism, xiii

constitutive factors, 80, 241

Contemporary Review, 120, 153, 154

contextual factors, 80, 168, 175, 176, 225, 241, 246

Cooter, Roger, 163, 258 n74.2, 270 n158.2

continuity of nature (see also Natura non facit saltum; naturalism; uniformity of nature), 10, 62, 38, 262 n98.2

Cornhill, 153, 154

Coupland, W C., 157

Cowper, William, 7

Creator, grander view of, 8, 10, 14, 263 n104.2

Crick, F., 53, 54

Crombie, A. C., 171, 172

Crowther, J. D., 203-4, 231-2, 278 n204.1

"Crucible: Science in Society," xii culture, xii, xiii, xv, 57, 125

Cuvier, G., 66, 83, 145

cybernetics, xiii, 240

Czechoslovakia, invasion of, 212,

Darlington, C. D., 188

Darwin, Charles R., xiii, xiv, 1, 14, 15, 24, 54, 79, 132, 133, 135, 144, 148, 150, 151, 159, 169, 187, 198, 199, 200, 201, 220, 223, 234, 240, 255 n48.2, 263 n109.2, 275 n189.1, 277 n200.2, 277 n200.3

Autobiography, 40, 109

Descent of Man, 44, 58, 59, 63, 64, 97-8, 102, 117, 120, 131

"Essay of 1844," 41, 88

Expression of the Emotions, 58, 59

Journal of Researches, 44

Life and Letters of Darwin, xiv, 67, 121

Natural Selection, 87, 92

 

335

Notebooks, 1, 42-3, 58, 72, 82, 179, 223 Origin of Species, 4, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 20, 31, 40, 58, 59, 68, 79, 82, 87, 89, 93, 101, 104, 106, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 131, 134, 146, 183, 222-3 and PaleY, 30, 39

"Sketch of 1842," 41, 87-8

on theism, 21, 102-3, 106, 107-9, 112

Variation . . . under Domestication, 40, 59, 109, 113

voyage of the Beagle, 1, 82

Darwin, Erasmus, 2, 70, 79, 82, 113

Darwinian debate, 1, 40, 235

Darwinism, xiii, 1, 21, 79, 185, 237, 284 n242.3

Dawkins, W B., 120

de Beer, Sir Gavin, 179, 180, 181, 224, 254 n42.1, 274 n183.2

De Niro, Robert, ix

Dell, J. H., 251 n20.1

demarcationism, 165, 219

Descartes, René, 69, 76, 81, 148, 172

design, 109, 110, 112, 121

determinism, 60

Dewey, John, 76

dialectic, 166, 241

dialectical materialism, 53

Dickens, Charles, 38

Dickinson, Emily, ix

Dictionary of National Biography, 153

Dijksterhuis, E. J., 172

direct action of the environment, 116

Disraeli, B., 123-4

division of labor, xiii, 50, 51, 190, 191, 200, 216, 237, 240, 276 n198.1, 283 n240.1

domestication, 26, 31, 40, 41, 44, 58, 83, 85, 86, 99

Douglas, Mary, 165, 244, 285 n244.2

Draper, John William, 144, 185, 249 n7.2, 267 n144.1

Dublin Review, 153

Ducasse, C. J., 172

Dunn, John M., 163, 175, 176, 251-2 n24.2, 273 n176.2

Durant, John, 163

Dutschke, Rudi, 283 n236.2

Earth, 9

economics, xiii, 173, 179, 182, 209, 215, 225

The Economist, 153

Eddington, A., 157

Edinburgh, xi

Edinburgh Review, 6, 26, 61, 63, 120, 128, 142, 154, 158, 170, 192

education, 75, 118

Eiseley, Loren, 182

Eisen, S., 268 n147.2, 269 n156.3

Eliot, George, 50, 124, 125, 133, 136, 185, 193-4, 196, 266 n133.2

Ellegard, A., 121, 131, 235, 261 n97.1

embryo, 70

empiricism, 97, 133

Encyclopedia Britannica, 54

Engels, Frederick, 20, 52-4, 189, 196-7, 201, 207, 209-11, 216, 237, 275 n189.1, 277 n200.2, 277 n200.3 epistemology, 69, 222, 240

Essays and Reviews, 4, 8, 11, 15, 146, 148, 169, 185

ethics, 51, 69, 75, 118

Everett, E. N., 133, 192

evolution, 1, 5, 8, 9, 13, 44, 48, 57, 70

"externalists," in history of science, x, 23, 165, 174, 175, 192, 219, 222, 223, 224, 228, 230, 231, 245 extinction, 3, 31, 44, 84

eye, 115-6, 264 n116.1

faculties, 93

Farrar, Dean, 15

Ferrier, David, 63, 64, 159

fetishism of commodities, 217

Feuerbach, L., 241

Feyerabend, P., 281 n222.2

Figlio, K., x, 273 n174.2, 278-9 n213.1

final cause, 101

Flood, Mosaic, 6, 9, 10

Forbes, Duncan, 176

force, 76, 77, 264 n113.1

Foreign Quarterly Review, 63, 158

Fortnightly Review, 120, 133, 136, 153, 154, 192

Foucault, M., 178, 213

fragmentation, xiii

Fraser, A. C., 153

Fraser's Magazine, 153

Free Association Books, xii

free will, 8, 9, 62, 108, 126

French Revolution, 25-6, 188

Freud, Sigmund, 26, 76

Fritsch, G., 64

Froude, J. A., 150, 153, 160

functionalism, xiii, 75, 76, 206-7, 229, 230, 240, 243, 281 n229.1

Fyfe, J., 52

Galapagos Islands, 41, 82, 86

Galilei, Galileo, 81, 139, 220

Gall, F. J. (see also phrenology), 63, 75, 133, 196, 258 n74.2, 266 n133.2

Garaudy, R., 213, 280 n218.2

Gay, John, 70

 

336

Geison, G. L., 113

Genesis (see also Bible), xvii-xx, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 148, 246-7

genetic engineering, xiii, 120, 247

genetics, 53

geographical distribution, 82

Geological Society of London, 6, 7, 11, 130, 137

geology, 3, 5, 9, 13, 14, 58, 61, 92, 126, 130, 136, 141, 147, 169, 179, 223

George, Henry, 48, 256 n53.1

German historical scholarship, 3, 6

Germany, 20, 61, 212

Gillespie, C. C., 130, 172, 182, 225, 265 n130.3

Gladstone, William, 150, 153, 160, 192.

God (see also Creator, grander view of), 7, 8, 13, 27, 72, 90, 99, 101, 104, 107, 110, 112., 121, 122, 126, 143, 148, 152, 169, 246

Godwin, William, 2, 17, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 39, 51, 54, 72

Goldmann, Lucien, 213-15, 242, 244

Gombrich, E. H., 176, 177

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 173

Gordon, John, 158

gossip, xiv

Graham, W, 111-2, 157, 199

Gramsci, Antonio, 213, 243

Grant, Alexander, 120

Gray, Asa, 92, 105, 107-9, 111, 114, 116

Great Chain of Being, 62

Greene, John C., 183

Gruber, Howard, 82, 224

Guest, David, 278 n204.1

Haber, S., 182

Habermas, Jürgen, xi, 213, 220

Haeckel, Ernst, 199

Haight, G. S., 133

Hall, A. R,, 165, 171, 172, 205, 219, 229-32

Hanson, N. R., 171, 172

harmony, 24, 25

Harris, Nigel, 218

Harrison, Frederic, 150, 153, 159

Harrison, J. E C., 274-5 n 186.2

Hart, Jenifer, 132

Hartley, David, 2, 61, 69-71, 72, 158

Harvey, William, 81

Hazlitt, William, 25, 26

Hegel, G. W F, 211, 220, 231

Henderson, L. J., 226

Hennell, C., 193

Herbert, Sandra, 182, 200

Herschel, Sir John, 14, 82, 84, 89, 105, 106, 108, 156, 195

Hesse, Mary B., 171, 172, 175, 272 n172.1

Hessen, Boris, 201, 203, 277 n203.1, 281 n227.2

Heyl, Barbara, 229

Hill, Christopher, 176, 177

Hillis-Miller, J., 133

historiography, xv, 56, 164-247, 251-2 n24.2, 277 n203.1

history and philosophy of science, xi, xiii, 129, 165, 171-9

history of embryology, 164

history of ideas, xii, 79, 128, 165, 166, 174, 176

history of psychology, 56-78

history of science, 23, 24, 55, 56, 79, 80, 208

Hitzig, E., 64

Hobbes, Thomas, 176

Hobhouse, L. T., 159

Hobsbawm, Eric, 177, 186, 206-8, 238

Hodge, M. J. S., 251 n24.2

Hodgson, Shadworth, 159

Hofstadter, R., 52

Holland, Henry, 66

Holmes, Fr. D., 250 n8.2

Hooker, J. D., 86, 104, 116

Hooykaas, R., 85, 182

Horkheimer, Max, 213

Horton, Robin, 165, 244

Hoskin, M. A., 171

Houghton, W E., 131, 133, 134, 256 n63.3, 272 n170.1

human nature, xii, 78, 90, 216

Humboldt, W. von, 50

Hume, David, 61, 69, 77

Hungary, 212, 234

Hutton, R. H., 144, 150, 151, 152, 153

Huxley, Thomas H., 4, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 59, 62, 63, 66, 89, 111, 114, 115, 120, 132,, 135, 136, 137, 143, 144, 145, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156, 158, 159, 160, 169, 183, 192, 195, 234-5, 267 n144.1

ldéologues, 75

ideology, xii, xiii, 56, 78, 79, 110, 164, 166, 173, 191, 192, 211, 212, 225, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 236, 240, 244, 246

imperialism, 18, 191

Indiana, University of, 230

induction, 76

industrialization, 189, 191

information theory, xiii

instinct, 58, 59

intelligentsia, 1, 12

"internalists," in history of science, 23, 60, 122, 126, 128, 165, 167, 177, 179, 181,

.

337

192, 219, 222, 223, 224, 228, 230, 231, 245

International Congress of the History of Science and Technology, 164-5, 173, 202-4

International Scientific Series, 144, 157, 269 n156.3, 269 n157.1

inutility of incipient structures, 114, 118

Jackson, John Hughlings, 64, 76, 223

James, William, 159

Japan, 212

Jeffrey, Francis, 158

Jenkin, Fleeming, 114, 115

Jesus Christ, 8, 9

Johnson, Paul, 277 n20I.2

Jones, Gareth Stedman, 284-5 n234.1

Joravsky, D., 278 n212.2

Jordanova, L., x, 273 n174.2

Kant, I., 90, 138, 172

Kellner, Douglas, 279 n213.1

Kepler, J., 81

King, M. D., 228-9

King's College, Cambridge, 175, 177

Kingsley, Charles, 106, 113

Kirby, William, 149

Kitchel, A. T., 133

Knoepflmacher, U. C., 133

Knorr-Cetina, Karin, xi

Knowles, J., 151, 152, 153, 154, 160

Kohn, David, x, xi, 163, 253 n31.1, 260 n86.1

Koyré, A., 173, 205

Kuhn, Thomas S., xi, 165, 172, 219, 221-6, 229, 233, 281 n222.2; see also paradigms

labor process, xii

Lakatos, Imré, xi, 165, 219-21, 225, 229, 233

Lamarck, J-B., 46, 50, 71, 82, 84, 86, 90, 96, 223, 257 n71-3; see also acquired characteristics, inheritance of land nationalization, 184

Laslett, Peter, 176

Laycock, Thomas, 62

The Leader, 133

Leeds, 175

Lefebvrc, H., 244

Leibniz, G. W, 96

Lenin, V I., 217

Lévi-Strauss, C., 213

Lewes, G. H., 50, 53, 61, 62, 75, 79, 89, 106, 115, 120-1, 124, 125, 133, 159, 169, 183, 185, 193, 198, 223

Lieb, Irwin C., 163

Lilley, S., 230

Linnean Society, 47

literacy, 154

literary and philosophical societies, 132

Locke, John, 6, 61, 69, 138, 158, 176

London, Bishop of, 32

Lovejoy, A. O., 163, 173

Lubbock, Sir John, 68, 132, 151

Lukács, Georg, 163, 165, 213, 215, 226, 242, 243, 244, 283-4 n242.2, 284 n242.2, 284-5 n243.1

Luxemberg, Rosa, 213

Lyell, Charles, 5, 11, 14, 15, 16, 24, 31, 47, 50, 65, 68, 82, 90, 95, 99, 106, 108, 110, 122, 132, 133, 135, 148, 156, 169, 182, 198, 199, 200, 201, 220, 223, 253 n31.1, 262 n98.2, 262 n 103.1

Antiquity of Man, 68, 103, 109, 120, 145

Principles of GeoIogy, 3, 4, 43, 44, 47, 50, 67, 82, 84, 91, 101, 113, 138, 144

Lysenko-Michurin theory of inheritance, 24, 53, 212, 256 n54.1

McGuire,J. E., 175

Macmillan's Magazine, 153, 154

McNeil, Maureen, 163

Madden, E. H., 172

Malay Archipelago, 45

Malthus, Thomas R. (see also population pressure; wedges), xiii, 17, 23-55, 74, 82, 86, 111, 126, 132, 169, 180, 181, 185, 191, 192, 194, 216, 222, 223, 237, 240, 246, 253 n30.1, 256 n53.1, 277 n200.2, 284 n242.3

and Chalmers, 31-9

and Darwin, 39-44

Essay on Population, 2, 31, 38, 40, 44, 45-6, 60, 85, 187

Malthusian law, arithmetical and geometrical ratios, 2, 24, 28, 29, 31, 34, 39, 41, 44, 73, 187, 198 and Marx and Engels, 52-4

and Paley, 27-31

and Spencer, 48-52

and Wallace, 44-8

man, 3, 101-2, 113, 120, 122, 126, 141, 142, 143, 167, 169, 210, 224, 241, 246, 262 n103.1

Man, 158, 160

"man's place in nature," 1, 4, 44, 54, 65, 66, 67, 77, 126, 129, 130, 164-247.

Mandelbaum, M., 262 n98.1

Mannheim, Karl, 173, 226, 227

Manning, Cardinal, 150, 192

Manuel, Frank, 201

Marcuse, Herbert, xi, 163, 213, 216, 220, 228, 243, 280 n216.2

 

338

Martineau, J., 151, 153

Marx, Eleanor, 20

Marx, Karl, 20, 52-4, 173, 189, 201, 208, 209, 216, 220, 226, 230, 237, 239, 242, 243, 275 n189.1, 277 n200.2

Capital, 79, 217

Marxism, 21, 24, 164-247, 277 n203.1

Marxism, vulgar, 165, 202, 207, 212, 216, 217, 218, 232-3, 281 n227.2

Mason, S. F., 273 n172.3

Mason, Tim, 176

materialism, 15, 71, 147, 152

Maurice, F. D., 151, 192

May Day Manifesto, 213

Mayr, E., 260 n86.1

Mechanics' Institute, 63, 132, 135, 185

mechanism (for evolution), 80, 91, 98, 113, 121, 194

mediation, 166, 199, 201, 205, 208, 230, 244, 245

medicine, 156

Meek, Ronald, 52

Merton, R. K., 165, 173, 219, 226-9, 230, 233, 281 n227.2, 281 n229.1, 282 n231.1

mesmerism, 68, 220

Mészáros, I., 244

metaphor (see also natural selection), 79-125

Metaphysical Society, 121, 150-55, 161, 185, 192

metaphysics, 10, 59, 81, 85, 89, 98, 152, 158

Meyerson, I., 205

microelectronics, xi

Mill, James, 3, 61, 71, 158

Mill, J. S., 3, 50, 61, 71, 75, 76, 111, 137, 150, 158

Millhauser, M., 132, 156, 183

Mills, C. Wright, 213

mind, 4, 9, 10, 11, 57, 59, 117, 120, 126, 142, 147, 246

Mind, 65, 157, 158-9, 160

mind-body dualism, 71, 76, 77

miracle, 3, 9, 91, 127, 148

Mivart, St. G. J., 114, 120, 121, 151, 153, 169, 198, 263 n109.1

Modern Quarterly, 52, 53

molecular biology, xiii

Montreal, 155

Moore, G. E., 159

Moore, James R., 163, 250 n15.1

moral restraint (see also Chalmers, Thomas; Malthus, Thomas Robert), 31, 32, 35, 39, 41, 43, 47, 54, 73

Morley, John, 136, 153

Morris, Desmond, 188

Mozley,J. B., 110, 121

Mulford, J., x, 283 n236.2

Mulkay, Michael, xi

Murray, J., 95

muscle sense, 76

Nairn, Tom, 234

NATO, 230

National Review, 153

Natura non tacit saltum (see also continuity of nature; naturalism; uniformity of nature), 92, 94-5

natural history, 18, 32

natural law, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, 57, 61, 94, 101, 107, 110, 119, 122, 142, 187, 240; see also naturalism

natural selection (see also survival of the fittest), 2, 5, 11, 18, 19, 20, 25, 31, 40, 58-9, 74, 79-125, 180, 187, 198, 246

natural theology, 2, 10, 11, 12, 21, 22, 24, 29, 31, 35, 36, 97, 105, 106, 107, 111, 120, 126-63, 187, 188, 240, 250 n11.1, 263 n104.2

naturalism (see also continuity of nature;

Natura non facit sultum; natural law; uniformity of nature), 1, 2, 4, 8, 22, 68, 77, 79, 90, 122, 186, 189, 216

naturalism, narrative, xv

nature (see also Book of God's Works), xii, 12, 57, 78, 122, 126, 156, 169, 210, 241, 246

Nature, 155, 156, 160

Needham, Joseph, 164, 173, 176, 177, 202-3, 212, 231, 277 n203.1

neo-Darwinism, xiii, 81

nervous system, 9, 50, 60, 61, 133, 223

neurophysiology, 63, 64, 126, 168

New Left, 165, 212, 217, 218, 219, 233, 278-9 n213.1

New Left Review, 233, 279-80 n213.1

Newman, John Henry, 9

Newton, Sir Isaac, xii, 15, 43, 61, 70, 81, 96, 107, 111, 119, 187, 187, 201, 203, 204,220,240

The Nineteenth Century, 133, 151, 153, 154, 155, 159-60

Nobel Prize, 120

nominalism, 97, 136

nonscientific influences, 79, 167

Nordenskiö1d, E., 119

Norman, Edward, 132

North British Review, 114, 153

objectivity, 215, 216, 236

Oedipus, 247

Ollman, B., 244

operational research, 240

Optimism, 27

 

339

origin of species, 46, 47

Owen, Richard, 9, 62, 66, 223, 263 n106.2

Owen, Robert, 68, 74, 185, 258 n74.2

Oxford, 6, 7, 140, 146, 175, 176, 235

Pagel, Waiter, 176

Paine, Thomas, 34, 132

paleontology, 58, 66, 223

Paley, William, 10, 24, 26, 27-31, 54, 97, 98, 103, 111, 113, 115, 132, 169, 187, 189-91, 192, 194, 196, 240

Natural Theology, 2, 32, 97, 128

Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, 30

Pall Mall Gazette, 153

Pangenesis, 113, 114, 116, 264 n116.1

papal infallibility, 151

paradigms (see also Kuhn, Thomas S.), 168, 219, 221, 263 n106.2

Pareto, W, 226

Pattison, M., 15I, 153

Pavlov, I. P., 53

peacock's tail, 116

Peel, John, 185

perfectibility, 26, 31

phenomenalism, 76, 77, 97, 136

Philosophic Radicals (see also Utilitarianism), 3, 69, 185, 277 n199.1

philosophy of nature, 60, 76, 77, 97, 133-4, 150, 175, 224, 261 n97.1

phrenology (see also Combe, George; Gall,

F. J.; Spurzheim, J. C.), 4, 6, 44, 49, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 74, 75, 132, 133, 158, 185, 196, 198, 220, 258 n74.2

Physiological Society, 159

physiology, 69, 77, 159, 167, 191, 240

Pilgrim's Progress, 64

Pitt, William, 29

Pittsburgh, 175

pleasure-pain theory, 72, 73

political economy, 33, 36, 39

politics, xiii, 118

Pope, Alexander, 252 n29.1

Popper, Sir Karl, xi, 172, 220, 225

popularization, 156, 159-60, 161, 269 n156.3

population pressure, 41, 43, 85-6; see also

Malthus, Thomas R.

Porter, Roy, 163, 182, 276 n191.2, 276 n197.2

positivism (see also Comte, A.), 16, 68, 97, 122, 133, 136, 148, 159, 168, 172, 185, 187, 193, 201, 206, 217, 250-1 n16.1, 263 n108.1, 267 n144.1, 269 n156.3, 273 n172.2, 283 n240.1

Poulantzas, N., 282 n234.1

poverty, 2, 19, 33, 188

Powell, Baden, 4, 11, 13, 80-1, 82, 90, 92, 132, 135, 136, 146-50, 162, 169, 198, 250 n11.2

powers, 94, 96

pragmatism, 240

praxis, 164, 233, 241

Priestley, Joseph, 71, 220

professionalization, 128, 156, 157, 160

progress, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 48, 50, 51, 54, 69, 73, 75, 110, 185, 187, 188, 195-6, 198, 240

Progressive Era, xiii

properties, biological, 93

Protestant ethic, 228

psychiatry, 168

psychoanalysis, 201, 240

psychology, 17, 21, 51, 56-78, 126, 158-9, 167

psychology, comparative, 58, 59

Puritanism, 227-8, 230

Quarterly Review, 11, 12, 26, 34, 61, 66, 109, 113, 120, 121, 128, 138, 151, 154, 192

radical historiography, 164-5, 222

Radical Science Journal, xii, xvi, 271 n165.1

Rattansi, P. M., 175, 177

Ravetz, Jerome, 175, 178

Ray, John, 10, 149

reflex, 62

reification, 215, 216, 218, 240, 242, 246

relativism, xi, 168, 175, 221, 225, 246

resolution of forces, 171

responsibility, 9

Richards, Eveleen, 163

robber barons, 18

Robertson, G. C., 65, 151, 159

Romanes, G. J., 58, 59, 118, 159

Rorty, Richard, 163

Rose, Steven, xi

Roszak, Theodore, xi

Rousseau, J. J ., 51

Royal Society of London, 6, 32, 63, 67

Rudwick, M. J. S., 182, 199, 277 n199.1

Rugby School, 15

Ruskin College, Oxford, 176

Ruskin, J., 151, 153, 192

Russell, Bertrand, 159

Ryle, G., 173

St. Simon, C. H. de, 191

Samuel, Raphael, 176

Sartre, J. P., 213

Schmidt, A., 213, 244, 284 n243.1

scholarship, Darwinian, x, 22

Schroyer, T., 280 n216.2.

 

340

Schweber, Silvan, xi

scientific management, 240

scientific revolution, 61, 71, 167

Scottish Enlightenment, 66, 176, 185

Scottish School, 77

scriptural geologists, 13, 156, 13

Scrope, G. P., 34, 35

secularism, 12,131, 160, 176

Sedgwick, Adam, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 99, 101, 132, 135, 149, 156, 169, 198

Seeley, J. R., 151

sexual selection, 117

Sidgwick, H., 151

Signer, Ethan, xi

Skinner, Q. R. D., 175, 176, 251-2 n24.2, 253-4 n48.1, 273 n176.2

Smith, Adam, 48, 72, 185, 188, 191, 211, 216, 240

Smith, Kenneth, 26, 188

Smith, Roger, 76, 77, 163

Smith, Sydney, 163, 179, 224

Social Darwinism, 18, 52, 75, 188, 240

Social Impact of Modern Biology Conference, xi

social intellectual history, 170, 179

social relations, xii, xiv, 174-5

socialism, xii, 20, 48, 68, 74, 184, 185, 198, 212, 217, 257 n71.2, 258 n74.2

society, xii, 78, 169, 179, 216, 224, 246

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 185

sociology, 51, 75, 168, 185

sociology of knowledge, 186, 226, 227

sociology of science, 219, 222, 226-9

Sohn Rethel, A., 165, 245

Somme Valley, 67

South America, 82, 86

spare-part surgery, xi

The Spectator, 153, 161

Spencer, Herbert, 4, 14, 16, 18, 24, 43, 53, 59, 61, 64, 72, 74, 79, 91, 118, 119, 132, 133, 135, 136, 150, 152, 169, 183, 184, 187, 197, 200, 223, 240, 251 n16.2, 255 n50.1;

see also division of labor homogeneity to heterogeneity, 50, 51

and Malthus, 48-52

Principles of Psychology, 50, 75, 270 n158.2

spinal cord, 62

spiritualism, 114, 184, 198, 220

Spurzheim, J. C., (see also Gall, F. J.), 63, 133, 196, 258 n74.2, 270 n158.2

Stalin, J., 217, 218, 220, 280 n218.1

stamp duty, 154

Stanley, A. P., 15, 150, 151, 153

Stephen, J. F., 151

Stephen. Leslie, 150, 153, 192

Stocking, George, 178

Stoppard, Tom, 277 n201.2

Strawson, P. F., 173

structuralism, 213

struggle, 45, 48, 50, 72, 187, 242

struggle for existence, 43, 44, 84, 93, 115

Sully, J., 151

superfecundity, 27

survival of the fittest (see also natural selection), 3, 19, 25, 40, 45, 46, 49, 51, 101, 236, 262 n101.1

Sutherland, Gillian, 176

Synthetic Society, 160

systems theory, xiii, 229, 240

Taylor, Frederick W (Taylorism), xi

technocracy, xiii

Teich, M., 178

teleology, 111

Temple, Frederick, 15, 148

Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 151, 152, 153, 160, 192

Thackeray, W M., 4

Thackray, Arnold, 275 n186.2, 282 n231.1

theodicy, 10, 31, 149, 190, 192, 195

theology, 4, 5, 78, 125, 169, 182

Thompson, E. P., 165, 177, 186, 218, 233-7

Thompson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin), 114

The Times (London), 115

totality, 129, 208, 215, 236, 244, 245, 285 n246.1

"Tract 90," 6

Trevor-Roper, H., 176, 177

Trinity College, Cambridge, 137, 146

Tylor, E. B., 132

Tyndall, John, 4, 12, 14, 111, 132, 136, 137, 144, 150, 153, 156, 160, 169,192, 261 n95.2, 267 n144.1

"Belfast Address," 15, 98, 143, 158, 257 n65.2

uniformitarianism, 3, 11, 16, 64, 65, 66, 83, 91, 101, 135, 138, 143, 145, 146, 148, 182

uniformity of nature (see also continuity of nature; Natura non facit saltum; naturalism), 4, 11, 13, 17, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90, 91, 94, 98, 99, 102, 104, 105, 110, 111, 120, 121, 122, 126, 135, 136, 149, 152, 191

Unitarianism, 71

University College, London, 175

U.S.S.R., 53, 54, 164, 202-4, 212, 217

U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences, 53

utility, principle of, 48, 97, 111, 113, 152, 215, 261-2 n97.2

 

341

utilitarianism (see also Philosophic Radicals), 3, 4, 6, 66, 68, 69, 72, 74, 133, 185, 190, 197, 214, 236 utopianism, 25

values, xii

variation, laws of, 17, 262 n98.2

vera causa, 105, 113

Veblen, T., 203

Versalius, Andreas, 81

Victoria, Queen of England, 1

Victorian periodicals, 126-63

Victorian studies, 79, 129, 132, 134

Vietnam War, 212

Vorzimmer, P., 113

Waddell, Margot, v, 163, 266 n133.2, 276 n193.1

Walker, D. P., 176

Wallace, Alfred R., 2, 4, 14, 18, 20, 24, 43, 48, 51, 72, 74, 77, 79, 86, 100, 106, 111, 113, 118, 119, 132, 150, 151, 156, 169, 181, 183, 184, 187, 198, 200, 220, 223, 254 n44.2, 255 n48.2

My Life, 45

The Wonderful Century, 19, 48

and Malthus, 44-8

Wallace, Robert, 26

Ward, A., 133, 152, 153

Watkinson, A. R. K., 255 n48.2

Watson, J., 53, 54

Weber, Max, 165, 173, 196, 219, 226, 228, 230

Webster, Charles, 175, 273 n176.1

wedges (see also Malthus, Thomas R.), 41, 42

Weissmann, A., 119

Wells, H. G., 157

Werskey, P. G., 204, 271 n165.1

Westminster Abbey, 15, 149

Westminster Review, 50, 61, 111, 115, 133, 154, 192, 193

Whewell, William, 10, 76, 77, 132, 135, 136-46, 149, 156, 169, 198

Whitehead, A. N., 159, 163, 173, 243

Wilberforce, Samuel, 7, 8, 11, 99, 147, 198, 235

"will-force," 77

Williams, Raymond, 178, 209-15, 238, 276 n197.2

Williams, William A., 178

Wilson, Leonard, 182, 199

Wisdom, J., 173

witch-hunting (McCarthyism), 230

Wittgenstein, L., 173

Wolff, M., 267 n146.2

Worden, M. A., 267 n 146.2

X Club, 185,271 n159.1

Yates, Frances, 176, 177

York, 6, 155

Young, G. M., 274 n186.2

Young, R. M., 177

Yoxen, Edward, 163

Yule, J. D., 162


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