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Darwin's Metaphor:
Nature's Place in Victorian Culture


Robert M. Young



[ Introduction | Preface | Chapter: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Notes | Bibliography | Index ]


Place of publication is London unless otherwise specified. Dates in parentheses after author indicate edition used; dates in parentheses after title indicate first edition. Square brackets indicate that the work was published anonymously.

Adorno, T. W Prisms. (1967). Trans. S. and S. Weber. Spearman.

Adorno, T. W (1967-8). "Sociology and Psychology." New Left Review no. 46 (Nov./Dec.): 67-97; no. 47 (Jan./Feb.): 79-96.

Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. J., and Sanford, R. N., (1969). The Authoritarian Personality (1950). Reprint. New York: Norton.

Albee, Ernest (1962). A History of English Utilitarianism (1901). Reprint. New York: Collier.

Altick, R. D. (1957). The English Common Reader. University of Chicago Press.

Anderson, Perry (1966). "Socialism and Pseudo-Empiricism." New Left Review no. 35 (Jan./Feb.): 2-42.

Anderson, Perry (1968). "Components of the National Culture." New Left Review no. 50 (July/Aug.): 3-57. Reprinted in Cockburn and Blackburn (1969), pp. 214-84.

Anderson, Perry (1980). Arguments Within English Marxism.. Verso.

Angell, J. R. (1909). "The Influence of Darwin on Psychology." Psychol. Rev. 16: 152-69.

Annan, Noël (1959). The Curious Strength of Postivism in English Political Thought. Oxford University Press.

Anon, (1809). "Paley's Sermons and Memoirs," Quarterly Rev. (Aug.): 75-88.

Anon, (1813). "Meadley's Memoirs of Dr. Paley." Quarterly Rev. 9: 388-400.

Anon, (1833). "The Bridgewater Treatises - The Universe and its Author." Quarterly Rev.. 50: 1-34.


Anon, (1834). "Crombie's Natural Theology." Quarterly Rev. 51: 213-28.

Anon, (1854). "Deluge." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 8th ed., vol. 7, pp. 710-23. Edinburgh: Black.

Anon. (1855). "The Earth and Man." Westminster Rev. 8: 151-70.

Anon. (1857). "The Present State of Theology in Germany." Westminster Rev. II: 327-63.

Anon. (1857a). "Testimony of the Rocks," Westminster Rev. 12: 176-85.

Anon. (1859). "The Order of Nature - Professor Baden Powell." North British Rev. 31: 353-83.

Anon. (1860). "Recent Latitudinarian Theology." Christian Remembrancer 38: 389-42,7.

Anon. (1860a). "Recent Rationalism in the Church of England." North British Rev. 33: 217-55.

Anon. (1862). "Dr. Lushington's Judgement." Westminster Rev. 22: 301-I5.

Anon. (1862a). Replies to Essays and Reviews. Parker.

Anon. (1863). "The Antiquity of Man." Westminster Rev. 79: 517-51.

Anon. (1863a). "Kingsley's Water Babies." Anthropological Rev. 1: 472-76.

Anon. (1864). "The Intellectual Development of Europe." Saturday Rev. 17: 726-7.

Anon. (1864a). "The Life of Jesus by Strauss." [Trans. George Eliot]. Westminster Rev. 26: 291-322.

Anon. (1865). "The Intellectual Development of Europe." Westminster Rev. 83: 94-142.

Anon. (1878). "Recent Science." Nineteenth Century 4: 765-84.

Anon. (1882). "The Province of Scepticism and the Limits of Free Thought." Church Quarterly Rev. 14: 412-34.

Anon. (1885). "Dr. Temple on Religion and Science." Westminster Rev. 123: 366-85.

Anon. (1960). The Central Nervous System and Behavior. Translations from the Russian Medical Literature. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

Anon. (1972). "Self-Management." Bulletin of BSSRS no. 15 (Jan. /Feb.): 10-12.

Appleman, P., Madden, W A., and Wolff, M., eds. (1959).1859: Entering an Age of Crisis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Aron, Raymond (1967). "Development Theory and Evolutionist Philosophy." In Aron, The Industrial Society: Three Essays on Ideology and Development, pp. 48-91. Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

Atkinson, H. G., and Martineau, H. (1851). Letters on the Laws of Man's Nature and Development.

Avineri, Shlomo (1968). The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Babbage, Charles (1837). The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise: A Fragment (i837), 2nd ed. Murray.

Bacon, Sir Francis (1850). On the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human (1605). In The Works of Lord Bacon. 2 vols. Bohn.

Bagehot, Walter (1869). Physics and Politics, or Thoughts on the Application of the Principles of "Natural Selection" and "Inheritance" to Political Society (1867). King.

Bagehot, Walter (19I5). "Malthus." In Mrs. Russell Barrington, ed., Works and Life of Walter Bagehot, vol. 7, pp. 212-26. Longmans, Green.

Bain, Alexander (1855). The Senses and the Intellect. Parker; 3rd ed. (1868); 4th ed. Longmans (1894).

Bain, Alexander (1859). The Emotions and the Will. Parker; 3rd ed. Longmans (1875).

Bain, Alexander, and Whittaker, T., eds. (1894). Philosophical Remains of George Croom Robertson. Williams and Norgate.

Baldwin, J. M. (1909). "The Influence of Darwin on Theory of Knowledge and Philosophy." Psychol. Rev. 16: 207-18.

Banks, J. A., and Glass, D. V (1953). "A List of Books, Pamphlets, and Articles on the Population Question, published in Britain in the period 1793 to 1880." In Glass (1953), pp. 79-112.

Bannister, Robert C. (1979). Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Baritz, Loren (1960). The Servants of Power: A History of the Use of Social Science in American Industry. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press.

Barker, Sir E. (1963). Political Thought in England, 1848 to 1914 (1915), 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.

Barker, Martin (1981). The New Racism. Junction Books.

Barlow, Nora, ed. (1967). Darwin and Henslow: The Growth of an Idea.Letters 1831-1860. Murray.

Barnes, S. B. (1972). "Sociological Explanation and Natural Science: A Kuhnian Reappraisal." Arch. Eur. Sociol. 13: 373-93.

Barnes, S. B., and Dolby, R. G. A. (1970). "The Scientific Ethos: A Deviant Viewpoint." Arch. Eur. Sociol. 11: 3-25.

Barnes, Barry, and Edge, David, eds. (1982). Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Barnes, Barry, and Shapin, Steven, eds. (1979). Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture Sage.

Barnes, Henry E. (1925). "Representative Biological Theories of Society." Sociological Rev. 17: 120-31, 182-95, 294-300.

Bartholomew, M. (1973). "Lyell and Evolution: An Account of Lyell's Response to the Prospect of an Evolutionary Ancestry for Man."Brit.j. Hist. Sci. 6: 261-303.


[Baynes, T S.] (1872). "Tylor on Primitive Culture," Edinburgh Rev. 135: 88-121.

Becker, B. H. (1874). Scientific London. Kegan Paul.

Beddall, B. G. (1968). "Wallace, Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection."J. Hist. Biol. 1: 261-323.

Beer, Gillian (1983). Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Beer, Gillian (in press). "'The Face of Nature': Anthropomorphic Elements in the Language of the Origin of Species." In Jordanova (in press).

Benjamin, Walter (1967). "The Sociology of Knowledge and the Problem of Objectivity," In L. Gross, ed., Sociological Theory: Inquiries and Paradigms, pp. 335-57. New York: Harper & Row.

Benjamin, Walter (1969). "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Benjamin, Illuminations, pp. 217-52. New York: Schocken.

Benn, A. W (1962). The History of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century (1906). 2 vols. Reprint New York: Russell & Russell.

Berger, Peter L., and Luckman, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday.

Berger, Peter, and Pullberg, S. (1966). "Reification and the Sociological Critique of Consciousness." New Left Review no. 35 (Jan./Feb.): 56-7I.

Bernal, J. D. (1952-3). "The Abdication of Science." Modern Quart. 8:44-50.

Bernal, J. D. (1967). The Social Function of Science. Routledge & Kegan Paul (1939). Reprint, with a postscript, "After Twenty-five Years." Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Best, Geoffrey (1971). Mid- Victorian Britain, 1851-75. Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

Bibby, Cyril, ed. (1967). The Essence of T H. Huxley: Selections from His Writings. Macmillan.

Birnbaum, Norman (1953). "Conflicting Interpretations of the Rise of Capitalism: Marx and Weber." Brit.J. Sociol. 4: 125-41.

Blackburn, Robin, ed., (1972). Ideology in Social Science. Fontana.

Blake, R. M., Ducasse, C. J., and Madden, E. H. (1960). Theories of Scientific Method: The Renaissance through the Nineteenth Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press.


Blake, R. M. et al. (1960a). "William Whewell's Philosophy of Scientific Discovery." In Blake et al. (1960), ch. 9.

Bloor, David (1971). "Two Paradigms for Scientific Knowledge?" Science Studies1: 101-15.

[Blunt, J. J.1 (1828). "Works and Character of Paley." Quarterly Rev. 38: 305-3 5.

Boas, Marie B. (1962). The Scientific Renaissance, 1450-1630. Collins.

Boas, M. B., and Hall, A. R. (1964). A Brief History of Science. New York: New American Library.

Bock, Kenneth E. (1955). "Darwin and Social Theory." Philos. of Sci..22: 123-34.

Bock, Kenneth E. (1964). "Theories of Progress and Evolution." In W J. Cahnman and A. Boskoff, eds., Sociology and History: Theory and Research, pp. 21-41. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.

Bonar, James (1924). Malthus and His Work (1885), 2nd ed. Macmillan.

Bonar, James (1966). Theories of Population from Raleigh to Arthur Young (1927). Reprint. Cass.

Boring, E. G. (1950). A History of Experimental Psychology (1929), 2nd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Bottomore, Tom, Harris, L., Kiernan, V G., Miliband, R., eds. (1983). A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell.

Bourdieu, Pierre (1975). "The Specificity of the Scientific Field and the Social Conditions of the Progress of Reason." Social Science Information 14 (6): 9-47.

Bowen, F. (1879). "Malthusianism, Darwinism and Pessimism." North Amer. Rev. 129: 447-72.

Bower, Frederick O. et al. (1925). Evolution in the Light of Modern Knowledge. Blackie & Son.

Bowler, Peter J. (1976). "Malthus, Darwin and the Concept of Struggle." J. Hist. Ideas 37: 631-50.

Braithwaite, Richard (1960). Scientific Explanation: A Study of the Function of Theory, Probability and Law in Science (1953). New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Brazier, M. A. B. (1959). "Russian Contributions to an Understanding of the Central Nervous System and Behavior - a Pictorial Survey." In M. A. B. Brazier, ed., The Central Nervous System and Behavior: Transactions of the First Conference ... 1958, pp. 23-136. New York: Josia Macy, Jr., Foundation.

Brent, Peter (1981). Charles Darwin: A Man of Enlarged Curiosity. Heinemann.

Brett, G. S. (1953). Brett's History of Psychology. Edited and abridged by R. S. Peters. Allen & Unwin.


[Brewster, D.](1834). "The Bridgewater Bequest-Whewell's Astronomy and General Physics." Edinburgh Rev. 58: 422-57.

[Brewster, D.] (1837). "Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise - Geology and Mineralogy." Edinburgh Rev. 65: 1-39.

Briggs, Asa (1959). The Age of Improvement, 1783-1867. Longmans.

Brinton, C. (1933). English Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century.Benn.

Brinton, Maurice, pseud. (I970). The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control, 1917 to 1921. The State and Counter-Revolution. Solidarity.

Brock, W H. (1966). "The Selection of the Authors of the Bridgewater Treatises." Notes and Records of the Royal Society 21: 162-79.

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Brooke, John H. (1979). "The Natural Theology of the Geologists: Some Theological Strata." In Jordanova and Porter (1979), pp. 39-64.

[Brougham, H. I (1827). "Natural Theology - Society of Useful Knowledge." Edinburgh Rev. 46: 515-26.

Brown, A. W (1947). The Metaphysical Society: Victorian Minds in Crisis, 1869-188o. New York: Columbia University Press.

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Brown, Theodore M. (1980). "Putting Paradigms into History." Marxist Perspectives no. 9 (Spring): 34-63.

[Brown, Thomas] (1803). "Villers sur une Nouvelle Theorie du Cerveau ... by Dr. Gall of Vienna." Edinburgh Rev. 2: 147-60.

Buchdahl, Gerd (1963). "The Relevance of Descartes's Philosophy to Modern Philosophy of Science." Brit. J. Hist. Sci. 1: 227-49.

Buchdahl, Gerd (1965). "A Revolution in Historiography of Science." History of Science 4: 5 5- 69.

Buchdahl, Gerd (1969). Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: The Classical Origins Descartes to Kant. Blackwell.

Buchdahl, Gerd (1973). "Explanation and Gravity." In Teich and Young (1973), pp. 167-203.

Buckland, William (1820). Vindiciae Geologicae: or, the Connection of Geology with Religion Explained. Oxford.

Buckland, William (1823). Reliquiae Diluvianae, or Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel, and on Other Geological Phenomena attesting to the Action of a Universal Deluge. Murray.

Buckland, William (1836). Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology. 2 vols. Pickering.


Buckle, H. T (1857-61). History of Civilization in England. 3 vols. Reprint. Oxford University Press (1931).

Buckley, J. H. (1951). The Victorian Temper. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Buckley, J. H. (1967). The Triumph of Time. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Budd, Susan (1967). "Reasons for Unbelief among Members of the Secular Movement in England, 1850-1950." Past & Present no. 36: 106-25.

Bukharin, N. I. et al. (1971). Science at the Cross Roads: Papers Presented to the International Congress of the History of Science and Technology held in London from June 29th to July 3rd, 1931 by the Delegates of the USSR (1931). Reprint, with a new foreword by Joseph Needham and a new introduction by Paul Gary Werskey. Cass.

[Bunbury, E. H.] (1882). "Life, Letters and Journals of Sir Charles Lyell." Quarterly Rev. 153: 96-13I.

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Burrow, John W (1963). "Evolution and Anthropology in the 1860s: The Anthropological Society of London." Victorian Stud. 7: 137-54.

Burrow, John W (1966). Evolution and Society: A Study in Victorian Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burrow, John W (1969). Introduction to C. Darwin, On the Origin of Species, pp. 11-48. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Burtt, Edwin A. (1932). The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science (1924), 2nd ed. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

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Butler, Samuel (1879). Evolution: Old and New. Cape.

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Campbell, G. D., Duke of Argyll (1880-81). "The Unity of Nature." Contemporary Rev. 38 & 39 (10 parts).

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Cannon, Walter/Faye (1960a). "The Uniformitarian-Catastrophist Debate." Isis 51: 38-55.

Cannon, Walter/Faye (1961). "The Basis of Darwin's Achievement: a Revaluation." Victorian Stud. 5: 109-34.

Cannon, Walter/Faye (1961a). "The Impact of Uniformitarianism: Two Letters from John Herschel to Charles Lyell, 1836-1837." Proc.Amer. Philosophical Soc. 105: 301-14.

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Cannon, Walter/Faye (1968). "Darwin's Vision in On the Origin of Species." In G. Levine and W Madden, eds., The Art of Victorian Prose, pp. 154-76. Oxford University Press.

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Carr, E. H. (1964). What is History? Harmondsworth: Penguin.

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[Chalmers, Thomas] (1817-18). "Causes and Cure of Pauperism." Edinburgh Rev. 28: 1-31; 29: 261-302.

Chalmers, Thomas (1832). On Political Economy, in Connection with the Moral State and Moral Prospects of Society. Reprint. New York: Kelley (1968).

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[Chambers, Robert (1844). Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, 2nd ed., Churchill; 11 th ed. (1860); 12th ed., Chambers (1884).

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Chambers, Robert (1969). Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Reprint of first ed. (1844), with an introduction by Sir Gavin de Beer. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Chant, Colin, and Fauvel, John, eds. (1980). Darwin to Einstein: Historical Studies on Science and Belief. Longman/Open University Press.


Chapman, Roger, and Duval, C. T., eds. (1982). Charles Darwin, 18091882: A Centennial Commemorative. Wellington, N.Z.: Nova Pacifica.

Chase, Allan (1980). The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism. University of Illinois Press.

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[Copleston, E.1 (1823). "Buckland - Reliquiae Diluvianae." Quarterly Rev. 29: 138-65.

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Crowther, J. G. (1967). The Social Relations of Science (1941), 2nd ed. Cresset.

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Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Murray.

Darwin, Charles (1874). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), 2nd ed. Murray.

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Darwin, Francis, ed. (1887). The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, 3rd ed. 3 Vols. Murray.

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de Beer, Sir Gavin, ed. (1959a). "Darwin's Journal." Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical Series 2, no. 1.

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Young, Robert M. (1982). "The Darwin Debate." Marxism Today 26, no. 4 (April): 20-2.

Young, Robert M. (1982a). "How Societies Constitute their Knowledge: Prolegomena to a Labour Process Perspective." Typescript.

Young, Robert M. (1982b). "Radical Science at a New Crossroads - Which Way to Go?" In Rosenhead et al. (1982), pp. 16-18.

Young, Robert M. (1985). "Is Nature a Labour Process?" In Levidow and Young (1985), pp. 206-32.

Young, Robert M. (in press). "Darwinism is Social." In Kohn (in press).

Yoxen, Edward (1981). "Life as a Productive Force: Capitalising the Science and Technology of Molecular Biology." In Levidow and Young (1981), pp. 66-122.

Yoxen, Edward (1983). The Gene Business: Who Should Control Biotechnology? Pan.

Zeitlin, Irving M. (1968). Ideology and the Development of Sociological Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Zeitlin, Irving M. (1971). "The Plain Marxism of C. Wright Mills." In Fischer (1971), pp. 227-43.

Zirkle, Conway (1941). "Natural Selection before the 'Origin of Species."' Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 84: 71-123.


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